A follow-on class of 6 SSBNs codenamed S5, almost twice as big as the Arihant-class, was also approved for development. These will be able to carry up to 12 K5 intercontinental ballistic missiles with MIRV warheads.
India Navy already has started working on the successor of Aridhaman Ballistic Missile Class Submarine at least a decade ago and new larger Ballistic Missile Class which will be designated as S5 and will be as big as Ohio class nuclear-powered submarines currently used by the United States Navy. It is unclear how many S5 sister class ships will be developed at this point in time but the construction of the new class of SSBN is yet to commence and it is likely will go on the floor for nearly a decade from now.
Indian Navy is concentrating on the development of current ssbn of arihant class that will give Indian Navy at least 4 submarines & after its completion around 2022-23 and then indian navy will start developing S5 nuclear Submarine.If the program sticks to its schedules and doesn't face any delays then tentatively the first lead submarine will be ready for launch by end of next decade. S5 will also require new reactor and BARC will upscale current 83MW Pressurized water reactor (PWR) from Arihant class to 190 MW to meet the power demands of the larger vessel.
Each S5 will have Average construction timeframe of 8 years and lead submarine S5 might take little longer time initially but India might start work on 2 Submarines at a time to reduce their developmental time.
India will be having a fleet of following numbers of Nuclear Submarines in near future :
1 SSBN's of Arihant Class +3 SSBN's of Aridhaman Class + 2 S5 SSBN's apart from that 6 new SSN's + INS Chakra and 1 more to be leased from Russia.
Last year Indian Navy was given go head to start design work on the development of Six new Nuclear attack Class Submarines which will be developed in parallel to the Ballistic Missile Class Submarine Fleet so that work on both the projects will continue independently.
Early this year, the government cleared a project to build six new hunter killer boats (SSN) for the Navy. A joint Navy, BARC and DRDO project, the boats will be designed by Navy's Directorate of Naval Design and be powered by a new reactor being developed by BARC. SSNs are as important as SSBNs as they can blockade important sea routes, denying the enemy access to important resources in an event of war, and shadow enemy ships
India's first line of Indigenous nuclear attack submarine will have more in common with Arihant class Ballistic missile submarines (SSBN) then Akula class nuclear attack submarines. As per report India's six new nuclear-powered attack submarines (SSN) will borrow 83 MW Pressurized water reactor (PWR) from Arihant class and will have a similar surface displacement of over 6000 tonnes.. Also, India is likely to lease another Akula II for 10 years in 2018, most likely the Kashalot that is 60% complete and in need of funds.
Unnamed Six Nuclear attack Class Submarines SSN are required to be much stealthier to do sneak attack and surveillance roles and it is reported that construction of Scorpene class Diesel attack submarines in India has helped Naval Design Bureau a lot in obtaining technical know how to better understand and develop stealthier hull.
The SSN are designed to track down and defeat both, the SSBN and the enemy aggression. These submarines are used in the attack of particular targets on land by the launch of the fast missiles by use of the torpedo tubes.
The Submersible Ship Nuclear carries the cruise missile with explosives which are used to attack the assailants within the shores. The other purpose of the submarine ship is to conduct surveillance, perform and complete intelligence missions, so they can offer aid in highly classified operations. The size of this ship is moderately big. The SSN is used to make attacks to assailants in the nearby distance. It is considered war prone and looks for enemy ships to destroy them
India declared free from Trachoma bacterial infection of eye
December 9, 2017
India was declared free from infective Trachoma, a contagious bacterial infection of the eye. The infection causes inflamed granulation on the inner surface of the lids.
It was announced by Union Health Minister J P Nadda after releasing National Trachoma Survey Report (2014-17) in New Delhi. With this, India met goal of trachoma elimination as specified by World Health Organisation (WHO) under its GET2020 (Global Elimination of Trachoma by the year 2020) program.
Trachoma is a chronic infective disease of eye and is leading cause of infective blindness globally. It is outcome of poor environmental and personal hygiene and inadequate access to water and sanitation. It affects conjunctiva under the eyelids.
Repeated Trachoma infection causes scarring leading to in-turning of the eyelashes and eyelids which further causes damage to cornea and blindness. It is main cause of corneal blindness in India, affecting young children. It was found affecting the population North Indian states like Gujarat, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh.
National Trachoma Survey Report (2014-17)
The Survey results indicate that active Trachoma is no longer a public health problem in India. It was possible due to decades of inter-sectoral interventions and efforts that included provision of antibiotic eye drops, personal hygiene, improved environmental sanitation, availability of safe water, availability of surgical facilities for chronic trachoma.
Trachoma has been eliminated among children below 10 years in all survey districts with overall prevalence of only 0.7%, much below elimination criteria of infective trachoma as defined by WHO. As per WHO targets, Trachoma is considered eliminated if prevalence of active infection among children below 10 years is less than 5%.
India's first-ever mobile food testing laboratory launched
December 9, 2017 (Goa)
Goa chief minister Manohar Parrikar on Sunday launched country's first-ever mobile food testing laboratory.
Parrikar unveiled the vehicle, worth Rs 41 lakh, in presence of Goa Food and Drugs Administration minister Vishwajit Rane.
The laboratory mounted on a bus will be travelling across the state checking food samples on the spot.
Parrikar said this would be the first ever 'Food Safety on Wheel' vehicle in the entire country.
"It is entirely funded by the Centre, which will also bear the maintenance cost for five years," he said.
The laboratory, he said, will help in on-the-spot testing of food items and curb adulteration.
"Besides this, it will also educate people about nutrition and importance of safe food," the chief minister added.
Parrikar said awareness about food items is crucial as "most of the time we don't know what is mixed in the food that we eat."
Director of Food and Drugs Administration Jyoti Sardessai said the vehicle is equipped with milk analyser, hot air oven, hot plate, mixer grinder, digital weighing scale, digital multi parameter hand-held meter, power generator, air conditioner and refrigerator.
Akash missile tested with indigenous radio frequency seeker
December 6, 2017 (New Delhi)
Surface-to-air missile Akash was successfully test fired on Tuesday with an indigenous radio frequency seeker, an official said.
The missile was successfully launched from the Launch Complex-III at Integrated Test Range at Chandipur in Odisha around 1.40 p.m.
"The radars, telemetry and electro-optical systems along the coast have tracked and monitored all the health parameters of the missile," said a statement.
This is the first surface-to-air missile with indigenous seeker that has been test fired.
"With this success, India has achieved the capability of making any type of surface-to-air missile," the statement said.
The launch operations were witnessed by the Director General (Missiles) in the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Scientific Adviser to Defence Minister, G. Satheesh Reddy; Director of Defence Research and Development Laboratory (DRDL), M.S.R. Prasad; Programme Director G. Chandra Mouli; Director Integrated Test Range (ITR) B.K. Das and other top DRDO scientists.
Noxeno: Nasal foreign body removal device launched
Government has launched Noxeno, a nasal foreign body removal device developed by start-up InnAccel Technologies Private Limited, Bangalore. It was developed by fellow trained under Biodesign program. Noxeno is It is first dedicated tool for anterior nasal foreign body (NFB) removal that allows doctors in any setting to quickly and safely remove objects that people (mostly children aged 2 to 10 years) put into their noses.
Noxeno has been 100% invented, designed, engineered and manufactured in India. It has ergonomic handle along with built-in light source and hinge. This allows user to slip behind NFB and remove it in matter of seconds by simply squeezing the trigger and pulling the device.
The modular nature of the system allows for sterilization of hinge through autoclaving it. It is reusable device and is also both easy to use and cost-effective. InnAccel Technologies is hoping to deploy this device across primary health care centres (PHCs), community health care centres (CHCs), clinics and smaller hospitals nationwide by 2020.
Bananas successfully cultivated for first time in Jammu and Kashmir
November 29, 2017 (Jammu and Kashmir)
Scientists have achieved a rare feat after they successfully cultivated bananas in Jammu and Kashmir. It is for the first time that the experiment of growing bananas in Jammu and Kashmir has succeeded with precision.
"Experimental works involved growing the banana by tissue culture technique at Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine (IIIM) Jammu. The samplings of this high quality tissue culture variety known as Bhim Grand Naine (G-9) banana were brought from Agro Division of Cadila Pharmaceutical Limited, Ahmedabad, Gujarat. The first trial of cultivation over two acres land of Field experimental farm Chatha has been successfully completed", said Dr. Ram Vishwakarma, Director CSIR-IIIM, Jammu.
First cultivation trial was conducted by planting 2000 samplings of banana plants with the narrow spacing in August 2016. The fruit setting commenced in July-August, 2017 while as the maturity and harvesting attained in 13 months.
"The plant grew to a height of 6.5 to 7.5 feet and gave yield 20-30 kg per plant and 20-25 tonnes/acre. In term of economy involved, as per market analysis, price of banana in Jammu is approximately Rs. 20 per kg. Thus on an average, 20-30 Kg yield/plant gives Rs. 250-300/Banana plant", said Dr Vishwakarma.
On the basis of market demand, approximately Rs. 2.5 lakh net return can be obtained by cultivation of this crop on one acre of land which is attractive business for farmers of the Jammu and Kashmir as it involves very less inputs but lucrative profit.
More than 164,000 acres of land in India is under the banana cultivation. Most edible banana species are widely cultivated in Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Kerala, Maharashtra, Gujarart, Karnataka, Assam, Andhra Pradesh and Bihar. Many wild species of banana are also reported from Northeast and South India.
Till date, no initiative of commercial cultivation of banana has been done in Jammu and Kashmir. Scientists said the commercial cultivation of banana in Jammu and Kashmir would be most profitable agriculture business for farmers of the State. This crop will be particularly suit Jammu region.
"The next target of IIIM to introduce the banana cultivation in Kashmir region through modern biotechnology approach (Polyhouses) which would be done in 2018", said the spokesman of CSIR-IIIM.
Restorers uncover 250-year-old 'time capsule' inside Jesus Christ's statue
December 13, 2017(New Delhi)
While working on an 18th-century statue of Jesus Christ in the Spanish town of Sotillo de la Ribera, restorers have unearthed a mysterious note hidden inside the statue's backside.
Restorers from the Da Vinci Restauro restoration company were in the process of refurbishing the statue, which resides in the church of Santa Águeda around 180 kilometers from Madrid, when they found the note.
The note consisted of two carefully hand-written pages dating back to 1777 and is signed by Joaquin Minguez, who was the chaplain of the cathedral at Burgo de Osma at the time.
Da Vinci Restauro released a video showing how the secret message was uncovered. Check it out!
The note discusses key facts about the statue, such as who carved it and that it is made from wood. Interestingly it also provides economic, religious, political and cultural information about the area at the time.
"The Court is in Madrid, there is a Mail and Gazette for the news, there is an Inquisition, for which no errors are experienced against the Church of God," Minguez says.
In the two pages, which are both filled with writing on the front and the back, he also discusses common diseases and people?s favourite forms of entertainment.
Historian Efrén Arroyo told Spanish news agency Efe that the priest meant for the message to be discovered hundreds of years after he penned it and for it to act as a kind of "time capsule."
IMD installs Automatic Weather Observation System on 10 metre mast at Mangalore airport
The Met department is currently involved in calibrating temperature and pressure sensors, transmissometers (for visibility) and plans to procure instruments required for up to 70 airports, given the newer airports being planned. airports in the country, including at Juhu airport, Mumbai, where instruments were mounted on masts measuring 6m in height.
IN A first, the Surface Instruments (SI) division of the India Meteorological Department (IMD), Pune, has installed an ingenuously developed Automatic Weather Observation System (AWOS) at Mangalore airport on a 10-metre tall mast. This is a part of upgrading and facilitating real-time weather updates directly to the pilots. Presently, all information pertaining to visibility, temperature, wind speed and direction, humidity prevailing at the location and the runway area of the airport is first sent to Air Traffic Control (ATC), from where it is relayed to pilots. Until now, only a handful of AWOS were installed at select airports in the country, including at Juhu airport, Mumbai, where instruments were mounted on masts measuring 6m in height. It was sometime last year that World Meteorological Organsiation (WMO) revised guidelines internationally for installing AWOS on masts ranging from 6 metre to 10 metre, after which a joint venture with CSIR-National Aerospace
Laboratories (NAL) was planned. This is being carried out on a trial basis at Mangalore airport, which is located on hilly terrain, also known as a table-top airport. The trials have been on for over three months now and will continue for a year,? informed a senior official from the division involved in the project. The challenge, however, remains in designing a mast that is frangible, so that it not only remains light in weight, just enough to support the on board AWOS instruments along with simultaneously being able to withstand wind speeds ranging from 50 to 60 m/sec, the official explained. " With the scaling up of the height, work is presently on to design the mast in such a manner that it can be either lowered or bend, for installation, maintenance or calibration purposes of sensors and other instruments, all of which is being led by experts at CSIR-NAL," the official added.
Besides, the SI division is also working on procuring and installing instruments for the newer proposed airports in India. nder the UDAN project, launched in October 2016, the instrumentation team will be additionally responsible for calibration, installation and maintenance of these instruments, presently being purchased for 52 airports, including Shirdi, Aurangabad and Kolhapur airports in Maharashtra.
"These are airports having limited operations, that is, most of them only during the day time, thereby having specific requirements. In addition, the requirements can also vary according to the geographical locations and local weather conditions," the authority informed.
The Met department is currently involved in calibrating temperature and pressure sensors, transmissometers (for visibility) and plans to procure instruments required for up to 70 airports, given the newer airports being planned.
Government launches new initiatives for Universal Health Coverage
December 12, 2017
The Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare launched 'LaQshya' Initiative and mHealth: Safe Delivery Application on the occasion of Universal Health Coverage (UHC) Day. Moreover, Operational Guidelines for Obstetric High Dependency Units and Intensive Care Units were also released.
UHC Day is observed every year on 12 December to commemorate first unanimous United Nations resolution calling for countries to provide affordable, quality health care to every person, everywhere. UHC aims at ensuring equitable access for all to affordable, accountable, appropriate health services of assured quality.
Laqshya- A Labour Room Quality Improvement Initiative
It is safe delivery mobile application for health workers who manage normal and complicated deliveries in the peripheral area. It objective is to improve quality of care provided to pregnant mother in Labour Room and Maternity Operation Theatres (OTs), thereby preventing undesirable adverse outcomes associated with childbirth.
It aims to reduce preventable maternal and new-born mortality, morbidity and stillbirths associated with care around delivery in Labour room and Maternity OTs. It will be implemented in government Medical Colleges (MCs), District Hospitals (DHs), high delivery load Sub- District Hospitals (SDHs) and Community Health Centres (CHCs). It plans to conduct quality certification of labour rooms and provide facilities to achieve outlined targets.
mHealth: Safe Delivery Application
It was launched for health workers who manage normal and complicated deliveries in peripheral areas. The app has Clinical Instruction films on key obstetric procedures to help health workers translate their learnt skills into actual practice. It has been field tested in few districts and found to be useful for health workers providing maternity care.
Operational Guidelines for Obstetric High Dependency Units and Intensive Care Units
These guidelines will complement already existing national guidelines. It will also help states and state level policy makers in setting up and operationalising critical care units dedicated to pregnant women.
India and Cuba sign MoU for enhanced cooperation in the health sector
December 07, 2017
India and Cuba sign MoU for enhanced cooperation in the health sector
India and Cuba signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) for enhanced cooperation in the health sector, here today. Shri J P Nadda, Union Minister of Health & Family Welfare and Dr Roberto Tomas Morales Ojeda, Public Health Minister of Cuba signed the MoU in the presence of senior officers from the Health Ministry and a high level delegation from Cuba.
Terming it historic, Shri J P Nadda stated that the relations between Cuba and India are historical and based on shared values of equality and justice, common aspirations and convergence of interests on global issues.
Shri Nadda further stated that the MOU on cooperation in the field of health and medicine between India and Cuba is important for exchanges in the health sector and to develop institutional framework for cooperation in the health sector between the two countries. One potential area is pharmaceutical and biotechnology. Cuba has made remarkable strides in the field of bio-technology and pharmaceuticals. We need to encourage greater institutional collaborations for joint production of medicines on commercial basis,? Shri Nadda elaborated. He also suggested that a Joint Working Group be formed for implementation of the MoU.
The objective of this MoU is to establish comprehensive inter-ministerial and inter-institutional cooperation between the two countries in the field of health by pooling technical, scientific, financial and human resources with the ultimate goal of upgrading the quality and reach of human, material and infrastructural resources involved in health care, medical education & training, and research in both countries.
The main areas of cooperation include:
Exchange & training of medical doctors, officials, other health professionals and experts
Assistance in development of human resources, health services and setting up of health care facilities
Short term training of human resources in health
Regulation of pharmaceuticals, medical devices and exchange of information;
Promotion of business development opportunities in pharmaceuticals and others identified by parties
Procurement of generic and essential drugs and assistance in sourcing of
Procurement of health equipment and pharmaceutical products;
Any other area of cooperation as may be mutually decided upon.
Procurement of health equipment and pharmaceutical products;
Collaboration in the prevention of NCDs of mutual interest, such as neurocardiovascular diseases, cancer, COPDs, mental health and dementia, with an emphasis on SDG3 and related factors;
Collaboration in the field of climate change impact on communicable diseases and vector borne diseases;
Nutritional aspects of food intake, including malnutrition (over-nutrition and under-nutrition) in the light of the SDG2 and organization of nutritional services;
Safety of production, transformation, distribution and food delivery;
Research and training of food industry operators;
Information and communication to citizens on hygiene and food safety and healthy eating habits; and
Any other area of cooperation as may be mutually decided upon.
Unique science gallery to open in Bangalore next year
December 07, (New Delhi )
Bangalore, often referred to as science and technology hub of India, is all set to host a unique science gallery where science and the arts will interact.
Called Science Gallery Bengaluru (SGB), the unique venture is a partnership between the Dublin-based Global Science Gallery Network and the Karnataka government as well as leading scientific institutions.
The global network has Trinity College Dublin, King's College London and University of Melbourne among its members. The gallery in Bangalore will be the first one in Asia. The Indian Institute of Science, the National Centre for Biological Sciences, and Srishti Institute of Art, Design and Technology are partners for the Bangalore gallery.
The Science Gallery Bengaluru is not going to be another science museum as such as "we do not and will not have our own collections," insists Jahnavi Phalkey, a historian of science and technology, who has been appointed Director of the gallery.
"You can think of it as a participatory laboratory where artists and experts from across disciplines engage with each other and with students to come up with interesting questions, and interesting solutions to them in the long run. This engagement will produce material that will become part of the exhibitions at SGB," Phalkey told India Science Wire.
The gallery will promote cross-linking of disciplines and social issues in novel ways, and will try to engage young people in the age group of 15 to 25. "We will not only change how we view often-disparate areas but also see how we might work together. I am particularly keen on students learning alongside scholars through tinkering and experiments," said Phalkey.
She said the galley activities will engage young people - higher secondary school onwards into the last university years. "The goal is one of engagement with science and not science communication alone."
"Activities in our own building will start in 2021. In the meanwhile, we hope to use public and institutional spaces in the city to begin with our programming," Phalkey said. "We will produce events and exhibitions to nurture a creative and critical appreciation of science ? and its relationship to nature and culture ? in Indian public life."
The gallery would also serve as a year-round public engagement platform for research carried out in the three participating research institutions, around key research themes of local interest.
Science Gallery International (SGI), the charity established to develop the Global Science Gallery Network, hopes to establish eight university-linked galleries worldwide by 2020.
Delhi air pollution study will use body sensors to map air quality
December 06, 2017(New Delhi)
As the national capital and some north Indian states battle severe air pollution, a team of researchers will use tiny sensors attached to the body to find out the amount of pollutant a Delhiite inhales everyday. The multidisciplinary team of researchers, including computer scientists, doctors and exposure scientists from nine institutes in the UK and India - led by the University of Edinburgh ? will examine links between long-term exposure to air pollution and health over a four-year period.
"The Delhi Air Pollution: Health and Effects (DAPHNE) project brings together best-in-class researchers from India and the UK to address the pressing problem of the health effects of sustained exposure to high levels of air pollution," Professor DK Arvind of the University of Edinburgh, who is leading the study, said. "We believe this innovative research, funded by the UK research councils over the past 15 years, could eventually help millions of people in Delhi and countless other global cities," the professor said.
According to a statement by the University of Edinburgh, air pollution levels in Delhi reached more than 16 times the safe limit, prompting the local government to declare an emergency situation. The DAPHNE project involves 760 pregnant women, who will wear the air pollution monitors attached as adhesive patches and scientists will record the health of the mothers and their children following birth. The researchers will also focus on 360 young people with asthma in order to examine the level of exercise they can tolerate amid air pollution.
The researchers would use battery-powered respiratory monitors, known as 'RESpecks' and the air pollution monitors, called 'AIRSpecks', utilise 'Speckled Computing', a technology being pioneered by scientists at the University of Edinburgh. " 'Specks' are tiny devices that can be placed on everyday objects, and people, in order to sense, compute and communicate data. In the DAPHNE project, these sensors transmit each person?s data wireless to their mobile phone, enabling the user to monitor their individual exposure to pollution," the statement said.
The project will also provide for larger versions of the same types of monitors, with additional sensors to measure concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and ozone, it said, adding, "These will be attached to lamp posts in order to create a network of monitors to measure air pollution levels across Delhi." The data from the solar-powered lamp post monitors will then be uploaded via cellular network and shared with those taking part in the study. The information will enable users find the cleanest and shortest route between places in the city based on up-to-date information, personalised to their condition./
The devices have been developed at the Centre for Speckled Computing in the School of Informatics at the University of Edinburgh. According to the statement, the project was awarded 1,165,209 pounds by the UK?s Medical Research Council and Natural Environment Research Council, and is funded in India by the Department of Biotechnology and the Ministry of Earth Sciences. The Indian partners include Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai, AIIMS, Delhi, Delhi University College of Medical Sciences, IIT Delhi, IIT Kanpur and INCLEN, which is a ?not for profit? research organisation conducting multi-disciplinary studies on high priority global health issues.
The UK Partners include the University of Edinburgh (Centre for Speckled Computing, School of Informatics and Centre for Cardiovascular Science), Imperial College (National Chest and Heart Institute) and the Institute for Occupational Medicine.
Earthquakes hitting densely populated mountainous regions, such as the Himalaya, are bigger in magnitude because of a fast tectonic-plate collision, according to a study.
The finding by researchers from ETH Zurich in Switzerland provides a more complete view of the risk of earthquakes in mountainous regions.
The study shows that the frequency and magnitude of large earthquakes in the densely populated regions close to mountain chains - such as the Alps, Apennines, Himalaya and Zagros - depend on the collision rate of the smaller tectonic plates.
In 2015, a magnitude 7.8 earthquake struck Gorkha-Nepal, and a year later, Norcia, Italy suffered a magnitude 6.2 earthquake.
Previous research has attempted to explain the physical causes of earthquakes like these, but with ambiguous results.
For the first time, researchers show that the rate at which tectonic plates collide controls the magnitude of earthquakes in mountainous regions.
This is because the faster they collide, the cooler the temperatures and the larger the areas that generate earthquakes. This increases the relative number of large earthquakes, they said.
"The impact of large earthquakes in mountain belts is devastating," said Luca Dal Zilio from ETH Zurich.
"Understanding the physical parameters behind the frequency and magnitude of earthquakes is important to improve the seismic hazard assessment," said Zilio, lead author of the study published in the journal Earth and Planetary Science Letters.
There are seven large tectonic plates and several smaller ones in the Earth's lithosphere - its outermost layers.
These plates move, sliding and colliding, and that movement causes mountains and volcanoes to form, and earthquakes to happen.
The researchers developed 2D models that simulate the way the tectonic plates move and collide.
The seismo-thermo-mechanical (STM) modelling approach utilises long-time scale processes to explain short time scale problems, replicating the results observed from the historical earthquake catalogues.
It shows graphically the distribution of earthquakes by their magnitude and frequency that are caused by movement in the orogeny - a belt of the Earth's crust involved in the formation of mountains.
The simulations suggest that the magnitude and frequency of the earthquakes in mountainous regions are directly related to the rate at which the tectonic plates collide.
World's most complex nuclear plant, in which India is a scientific partner, now 50% built
December 6, 2017(New Delhi)
The world's most complex machine, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), a project in which India is a scientific partner to prove that fusion power can be produced on a commercial scale, is now 50 per cent built, it was announced on Wednesday.
Carbon-free and environmentally sustainable fusion is the same energy source from the sun that gives the earth its light and warmth.
ITER, the most complex science project in human history, will use hydrogen fusion, controlled by superconducting magnets, to produce massive heat energy.
In the commercial machines that will follow, this heat will drive turbines to produce electricity.
Scientists say a pineapple-sized amount of hydrogen offers as much fusion energy as 10,000 tonnes of fossil fuel coal.
The ITER facility is being built in southern France by a scientific partnership of 35 countries.
ITER's specialised components, roughly 10 million parts in total, are being manufactured in industrial facilities all over the world.
They are subsequently shipped to the ITER worksite, where they must be assembled, piece-by-piece, into the final machine.
Each of the seven ITER members - the European Union, China, India, Japan, Korea, Russia and the US -- is fabricating a significant portion of the machine. This adds to ITER's complexity.
In a message on December 1 to top-level officials in ITER member-governments, the project reported it had completed 50 per cent of the "total construction work scope through First Plasma".
First Plasma, scheduled for December 2025, will be the first stage of operation for ITER as a functional machine.
"The stakes are very high for ITER," writes ITER Director-General Bernard Bigot.
"When we prove that fusion is a viable energy source, it will eventually replace burning fossil fuels, which are non-renewable and non-sustainable. Fusion will be complementary with wind, solar, and other renewable energies."
"Our design has taken advantage of the best expertise of every member's scientific and industrial base. No country could do this alone. We are all learning from each other, for the world's mutual benefit."
The ITER 50 per cent milestone is getting significant attention.
The concept of the project was conceived at the 1985 Geneva Summit between Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev.
When the ITER Agreement was signed in 2006, it was supported by leaders like French President Jacques Chirac, US President George W. Bush and Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh.
More than 80 per cent of the cost of the ITER, about $22 billion, is contributed in the form of components manufactured by the partners.
Many of these massive components of the ITER machine must be precisely fitted, for example, 17-meter-high magnets with less than a millimetre of tolerance.
Each component must be ready on time to fit into the master schedule for machine assembly.
The European Union is paying 45 per cent of the cost; China, India, Japan, Korea, Russia and the US each contribute 9 per cent equally.
All members share in ITER's technology; they receive equal access to the intellectual property and innovation that comes from building the ITER.
When will commercial fusion plants be ready?
ITER scientists predict that fusion plants will start to come on line as soon as 2040.
The exact timing, according to fusion experts, will depend on the level of public urgency and political will that translates to financial investment.
The ITER will produce 500 megawatts of thermal power.
This size of the plant is suitable for studying "burning" or largely self-heating plasma, a state of matter that has never been produced in a controlled environment on earth.
In "burning" plasma, most of the plasma heating comes from the fusion reaction itself. Studying the fusion science and technology at ITER's scale will enable optimization of the plants that follow.
A commercial fusion plant will be designed with a slightly larger plasma chamber, for 10-15 times more electrical power.
A 2,000-megawatt fusion electricity plant, for example, would supply two million homes.
Kudankulam's two n-reactors reach full capacity, record 2,000 MW power generation
December 05, 2017
Both operating units of the Russian-aided Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project (KNPP) generated electricity to their full capacity of 1,000 MW each for the first time on Tuesday, according to a statement from Russia's atomic energy corporation Rosatom. The Russian equipment supplier and technical consultant of the Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd (NPCIL)-operated KNPP said, in a statement, that the Kudankulam units recorded the highest ever production since the start of operations.
"Unit 2 of the Kudankulam nuclear plant in Tamil Nadu reached full capacity of 1,000 MW today (Tuesday). For the first time both units 1 and 2 attained full generation capacity and KNPP and became the first nuclear plant in India to generate 2,000 MW of power," a Rosatom release said. While unit 1 was synchronised with the grid in October 2013, unit 2 completed the same function in August this year.
"The Kudankulam nuclear power plant has so far generated more than 20,000 million units of electricity, which helped to avoid around 17,083,874 tonnes of CO2 emissions," the statement said. The maximum generation attained at KNPP early on Tuesday morning was confirmed by NPCIL sources at the site.
Kudankulam, around 650 km from here, has two 1,000 MW nuclear power plants, built with Russian equipment. Two more units - third and fourth ? of similar size are being built with Russian collaboration at Kudankulam located in Tirunelveli district of the state.